Retinae

Description

Complementary food that provides nutrients to the Retina.

Lutein and Zeaxanthin: Protect the retina against age-related retinal degeneration in humans (1, 2, 3, 4, 5).
Minerals (Zn, Cu): Essential for the eye development and help to protect the retina (2, 6, 7).
Vitamins (C, E): Antioxidants; help to slow down visual acuity loss in humans (7)

Lactoferrin: Antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties (16).
Omega-3 fatty acids: Cytoprotective and antioxidant action. Reduces neovascularization and helps to prevent diabetic retinopathy in humans (4, 8, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17).
Vitamins (B6, B9, B12): Reduce homocysteine levels, a risk factor for the development of retinal degeneration (9, 10, 11).

COMPOSITION

Composition per Tablet (750mg): Omega-3 fatty acids (400mg), Marigold flower (Tagetes sp.) (source of Lutein, 4mg; and Zeaxanthin, 0,8mg) (4,8mg),

Lactoferrin (5mg), Magnesium stearate (10mg).

Additives per Tablet(750mg):

Flavouring agents: Chicken flavouring.
Vitamins: Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Niacinamide, Calcium Dpantothenate, Vitamin B6, Vitamin B2, Biotin, Vitamin B12, Vitamin B1, Folic acid.

Trace elements: Zinc (Zinc oxide) (4mg), Manganese (Manganese sulphate monohydrate) (0,8mg), Selenium (Sodium selenite) (22μg),

Copper (Copper(II) sulphate pentahydrate) (0,4mg).

INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE

Oral administration, once daily, with one of the main meals.

  • Pets Under 5 kg: 1/2 tablet
  • Pets weighing 5 to 10 kg: 1 tablet
  • Pets weighing 10 to 20 kg: 1 .1/2 tablets
  • Pets weighing 20 to 40 kg: 2 tablets
  • Pets weighing more than 40 kg: 2 .1/2 tablets

STORAGE CONDITIONS

Store in a cool and dry place protected from sunlight.

PRESENTATION 

Solid Form: 30 tablets 

References

1. Association between intermediate age-related macular degeneration and lutein and zeaxanthin in the
Carotenoids in age related macular degeneration dtudy (CAREDS): ancillary study of the women health iniciative.
Moeller SM, Parekh N, Tinker L et al. CAREDS researchh study group. Arch Ophthalmol 2006; 124:1151-1162.
2. Dietary antioxidants and the long-term incidence of age-related macular degeneration: the Blue Mountains Eye
study. Tan JSL, Wang JJ, Flood V, et al. Ophthalmology 2008; 115:334–341.
3. Plasma lutein and zeaxanthin and other carotenoids as modificable risk for age-related maculopathy and
cataract: Delcourt C, Carriere I, Delage M et al. POLA study group. The POLA study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci
2006;47:2329-2335.
4. Argón E., Mares J., Clemons T., Swaroop A., Chew E., Keenan T. (2021). Dietary Nutrient Intake and Progression to
Late Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Age-Related Eye Disease Studies 1 and 2. American Academy of
Ophthalmology VOLUME 128, ISSUE3, P425-442. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2020.08.018.
5. Lutein inpatients with cataracts and age related macular degeneration; a long term supplementation study.
Olmedilla B, Granado F, Blanco I, Vaquero M, Cajigal C. J Sci Food Agric; 81:904-909.
6. Zinc in the eye. Karcioglu AZ. Surv Ophthalmol 1982; 27:114–122.
7. Age-Related Eye Disease study research group. A randomized, placebo controlled, clinical trial of high-dose
supplementation with vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, and zinc for age-related macular degeneration and vision
loss. Arch Ophthalmol 2001; 119:1417–1436.
8. The role of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in health and disease of the retina. San Giovanni JP,
Chew EY. Prog Retina Eye Res 2005; 24:87–138.
9. Homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folic acid in age-related macular degeneration.Nowak M, Swietochowska E, Wielkoszynski T, et
al. Eur J Ophthalmol 2005; 15:764–767.
10. Plasma homocysteine and total thiol content in patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration. Coral K, Raman
R, Rathi S, et al. Eye 2006; 20:203–207.
11. Folic acid, pyridoxine, and cyanocobalamin combination treatment and age-related macular degeneration in women
Christen WG, Glynn RJ, Chew EY, et al. Arch Intern Med 2009; 169:335.
12. Behl T., Kotwani A. (2017). Omega-3 fatty acids in prevention of diabetic retinopathy. Journal of Pharmacy and
Pharmacology, 69, pp. 946–954. http://doi.org/10.1111/jphp.12744.
13. Docosahexaenoic acid enhances the antioxidant response of human fibroblasts by upregulating g-glutamyl-cysteinyl ligase
and glutathione reductase; Arab K et al; Br J Nutrition 2006; 95:18-26.
14. Docosahexaenoic Acid Improves Endogen Antioxidant Defense in Arpe-19 Cells . Gasso F, Domingo JC et al; ARVO 2008;
Poster 5932/A306.
15. Oily fish consumption, dietary docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentanoic acid intakes, and associations with neovascular
age-related macular degeneration. Augood C, Chakravarthy U, Young I, et al. Am J Clin Nutr 2008.
16. Multifunctional Iron Bound Lactoferrin and Nanomedicinal Approaches to Enhance Its Bioactive Functions. Jagat R. Kanwar,
Kislay Roy, Yogesh Patel, Shu-Feng Zhou, Manju Rawat Singh, Deependra Singh, Muhammad Nasir, Rakesh Sehgal, Alka Sehgal,
Ram Sarup Singh, Sanjay Garg and Rupinder K. Kanwar. Molecules 2015, 20, 9703-9731.
17. Gilbert R., Peto T., Lengyel I., Emri E. (2019). Zinc Nutrition and inflammation in the Aging Retina. Molecular Nutrition and Food
Research, 63, 1801049. http://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201801049.